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美国经济学家

2008年诺贝尔经济学奖得主。 美國經濟學家及紐約時報的專欄作家,普林斯頓大學經濟系教授,是新凱恩斯主義经济学派代表。1953年出生美國紐約,约翰·F·肯尼迪高中毕业。1974年就讀耶鲁大學,1977年在麻省理工學院取得博士學位,受到经济学家诺德豪斯的注意。畢業後先後於耶鲁大学、麻省理工及史丹福大學任教。2000年起,成為普林斯頓大學經濟系教授。

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eugene:点评(第一期)  

2009-06-26 07:31:44|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

1) 雨儿问起这个标题的译法。 我做了一些研究, 答如下:

第一: eats, shoots & leaves. 这很有歧义, 可以是三个动词连用(假定主语是第三人称单数现在时)意义是:吃、射和离, 亦即吃了饭、然后开枪杀人, 随后离开现场。 另一歧义是在一个假设之下成立, 那就是逗号误用, 应去掉, eats shoots & leaves, 即某人吃了苗芽(笋) 和叶子。 当然, 这里的某人也应是第三人称单数现在时。 还有一个歧义, 某人吃了苗芽(笋)随后离开。
下文来自wikipedia, 以资证明

Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation is a non-fiction book written by Lynne Truss, the former host of the BBC Radio 4's Cutting a Dash programme. In the book, published in 2003, Truss bemoans the state of punctuation in the United Kingdom and the United States, and describes how rules are being relaxed in today's society. Her goal is to remind readers of the importance of punctuation in the English language by mixing humour and instruction


There is one chapter each on apostrophes and on commas; one on semicolons and colons; one on exclamation marks, question marks, and quotation marks, italic type, dashes, brackets, ellipses, and emoticons; and one on hyphens. Truss touches on varied aspects of the history of punctuation and includes many anecdotes, which add another dimension to her explanations of grammatical rules. In the book's final chapter, she explains the importance of maintaining punctuation rules and addresses the damaging effects of e-mail and the Internet on punctuation.


The book was a huge commercial success. In 2004, the U.S. edition became a New York Times bestseller. Contrary to usual publishing convention, the U.S. edition of the book left the original British conventions intact.

第二:这个eats, shoots & leaves 还跟中国的熊猫有点关系。 熊猫手册有标点错误, 说它吃竹笋和竹叶, 但标点错误造成误会, 变成熊猫吃了后, 可以开枪, 然后离开。 下文亦来自wikipedia.
The title of the book is an amphibology, a verbal fallacy arising from an ambiguous grammatical construction, and derived from a joke on bad punctuation:
A panda walks into a café. He orders a sandwich, eats it, then draws a gun and proceeds to fire it at the other patrons.
'Why?' asks the confused, surviving waiter amidst the carnage, as the panda makes towards the exit. The panda produces a badly punctuated wildlife manual and tosses it over his shoulder.
'Well, I'm a panda', he says, at the door. 'Look it up.'
The waiter turns to the relevant entry in the manual and, sure enough, finds an explanation. 'Panda. Large black-and-white bear-like mammal, native to China. Eats, shoots and leaves.'
 
第三: eats green shoots and leaves. 显然是典故加典故了。 什么是green shoots?
Definition: any sign of growth, recovery, renewal
再看下述引文:
Spring is the season of rebirth, so it was fitting that Ben Bernanke, chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, in mid-March told 60 Minutes that he detected "green shoots" of economic recovery. Since then, the phrase "green shoots" has sprouted and blossomed. Analysts and journalists, desperate for any sign of hope, have taken to repeating the phrase "green shoots" as a soothing mantra. Economists are now walking around, eyes fixed on the ground like French rustics hunting for truffles, searching for verdant signs of growth.
原来green shoots 指的是最近美国经济界的一派人对经济的看好。
第四:如何译这个题目? 绿芽是有一点, 但有人吃了它, 已经离开, 绿芽则没了。 意指经济尽管有点复苏的痕迹,但衰退远远还没结束。 雨儿, 请找个中文的成语翻译。
 
2) Never mind the fact that two members of the committee have since succumbed to the magazine cover curse, the plunge in reputation that so often follows lionization in the media. (Mr. Summers, now the head of the National Economic Council, is still going strong.) Far more important is the extent to which our claims of financial soundness — claims often invoked as we lectured other countries on the need to change their ways — have proved hollow.
原译: 不必去在意三巨头中的两人此后成了杂志封面的反面人物,媒体造神之后通常都会迎来名誉扫地这样的事情。(现在掌管国家经济委员会的萨默斯先生依然风头正健。)更为重要的是,我们过去对自己金融健全的鼓吹已经被证明苍白乏力,以前我们还使劲劝说别的国家改变自己的运作方式呢。
magazine cover curse: 杂志封面人物之咒, 指的是人一上封面, 就会有坏运。 再如Kennedy curse:肯尼迪之咒, 凡肯尼迪家族成员都受此咒影响, 常常死去。
这是作者自行发明的词儿, 所以他用了一个同位语立即解释:the plunge in reputation that so often follows lionization in the media.媒体吹捧之后常常随之名誉扫地
the extent to which our claims of financial soundness — claims often invoked as we lectured other countries on the need to change their ways — have proved hollow.
定语从句中的主语是our claims, 谓语是have proved hollow. 俩破折号中的是同位语
Far more important is the extent to which our claims of financial soundness — claims often invoked as we lectured other countries on the need to change their ways — have proved hollow.
远为重要的是,我们自吹自擂的金融健全已被证明是多么(the extent to which) 空洞乏物,曾几何时, 我们还援引这种自以为是的金融健全教训别的国家改变运作方式呢。
Never mind the fact that two members of the committee have since succumbed to the magazine cover curse, the plunge in reputation that so often follows lionization in the media
不必去在意三巨头中已有两人随后身败名裂, 都因为受制于杂志封面人物之咒,亦即媒体吹捧之后的名人常常会随后出事而名誉扫地。
 
3) These things included “well-capitalized and supervised banks” and reliable, transparent corporate accounting. 原译:包括“资本运作良好及监管体系健全的银行”以及可靠、透明的公司会计体系。
well-capitalized: 资本充盈率高。 银行的资产负债表中, 资本=资产-负债。 资本充盈率=资本/资产。 资本充盈率高了, 负债率就低了, 银行风险就低了。
 
4)It’s no wonder, then, that an article in yesterday’s Times about the response President Obama will receive in Europe was titled “English-Speaking Capitalism on Trial.”
原译:于是,前天《泰晤士报》一篇关于欧洲对奥巴马的反应的文章题目叫做“说英语的资本主义候审”便不足为奇了。
“the response President Obama will receive in Europe” 奥巴马到欧洲时将接受的回应。此文应是写在他出访欧洲前夕。
Many European leaders are still in denial about the continent’s economic and financial troubles, which arguably run as deep as our own原译:许多欧洲领导人仍在否认欧洲大陆的经济和金融问题,而事实上可能与美国的问题一样严重
Arguably: 有争议地,要经过辩论才能搞清地, 而不是“事实上”。
重译:许多欧洲领导人仍在否认欧洲大陆的经济和金融问题,尽管欧洲大陆的经济和金融问题是不是与美国的问题一样严重, 仍有争议。
Still, it’s a fact that the crisis has cost America much of its credibility, and with it much of its ability to lead.
 原译: 但这场危机,令美国丧失了大部分可信度,以及大部分领导能力,这却是事实。
Much 不等于most. 许多而不是大部分。
 
5) The details of our current crisis are very different, but the need for cooperation is no less.
原译: 当前这场危机具体情况非比寻常,但对合作的需要却丝毫不减。
Different : 指得是与三十年代的危机在具体情况上有不同, 但与三十年代相比, 合作的需要丝毫不减。 (均与那时对比, 而不是与“寻常”对比)
But these days foreign leaders are in no mood to be lectured by American officials, even when — as in this case — the Americans are right.
原译: 但是现而今,国外领导人已经没心情听美国官员讲演了,即便当美国人正确的时候(比如这一次)。
Lectured: 听教训。
 
6)既然“财政部长盖特纳,已经说服总统奥巴马把布什政府的政策拿来“炒陈饭”,特别是“现钞换废纸”计划“, 为何又说:”他与他的经济团队已经脱节“?
“he and his economic team are out of touch“ 从上下文看, 不是he and his economic team are out of touch with each other, 而是he and his economic team are out of touch with reality.
正确的翻译应是:他与他的经济团队已经与现实脱节。
7)And by the time Mr. Obama realizes that he needs to change course, his political capital may be gone. 原译: 可是,等到奥巴马总统意识到他必须扭转乾坤的时候,他的政治资本或许早已耗尽。
Change course 仅是改弦更张, 扭转乾坤太过了一些
8) 为了进一步证明“是与现实脱节,而不是他与团队脱节”, 让我以下援引原文自证, 这比我的他证要好。
他与他的团队对银行的原来评价甚差:
After all, we’ve just been through the firestorm over the A.I.G. bonuses, during which *****istration officials claimed that they knew nothing, couldn’t do anything, and anyway it was someone else’s fault. Meanwhile, the *****istration has failed to quell the public’s doubts about what banks are doing with taxpayer money.
 毕竟,我们刚刚经历了AIG奖金丑闻的暴风骤雨。在这一事件中,政府官员称他们对此一无所知,无能为力,并且那都是别人的罪责。与此同时,关于各家银行对纳税人的资金使用问题,政府也无法趋散公众的疑问。
曾几何时,对同一个银行体系的评价却来了一个大转弯。
And now Mr. Obama has apparently settled on a financial plan that, in essence, assumes that banks are fundamentally sound and that bankers know what they’re doing.
现在,奥巴马总统很明显是敲定了金融救助方案。从本质上来看,这一方案假设银行的基本面都很健康,银行家们也都知道自己在做什么。
前倨后恭,轻者说来是与现实脱节, 重者说来是“与华尔街走得越来越近”。 不是吗?
9) That’s what Sweden did in the early 1990s. It’s also what we ourselves did after the savings and loan debacle of the Reagan years. And there’s no reason we can’t do the same thing now
原译:这个方法在上世纪90年代早期,瑞典就曾经用过。在里根执政期间,面对储蓄和贷款崩溃的时候,我们自己也用过。现在我们也没什么道理不去用它。
评论:savings and loan debacle of the Reagan years 一般译成:储贷(机构)危机。 亦略为S&L crisis
 
10)But the Obama *****istration, like the Bush *****istration, apparently wants an easier way out. The common element to the Paulson and Geithner plans is the insistence that the bad assets on banks’ books are really worth much, much more than anyone is currently willing to pay for them. In fact, their true value is so high that if they were properly priced, banks wouldn’t be in trouble.
原译:但是,奥巴马政府和布什政府一样,摆明了都想找一条逃生的捷径。保尔森和盖特纳方案的共同点在于,他们坚持认为银行账上的毒资产还值那么点钱,甚至比眼下人们愿意购买的价钱还高。事实上,这些资产的价值是如此之高,以至于如果它们被合理定价,银行压根儿就不会陷入困境。
评论:the insistence that the bad assets on banks’ books are really worth much, “他们坚持认为银行账上的毒资产还值那么点钱”——不是:还值那么点钱, 而是:还值很多钱。 In fact, their true value is so high that if they were properly priced, banks wouldn’t be in trouble。 从上下文看, 这不是客观事实, 而是保尔森和盖特纳心中认为的“事实”。 所以, 翻译上, 为避免误解, 应加词。“他们坚持认为银行账上的毒资产还值很多钱,甚至比眼下人们愿意购买的价钱还高。而其他们也认为,事实上,这些资产的价值是如此之高,。。。。。。”
 
11)The likely cost to taxpayers aside, there’s something strange going on here. By my count, this is the third time Obama *****istration officials have floated a scheme that is essentially a rehash of the Paulson plan, each time adding a new set of bells and whistles and claiming that they’re doing something completely different. This is starting to look obsessive.
原译:姑且撇开纳税人所负担的成本不谈,这里面还颇有蹊跷。照我的计算,这已经是第三次,由奥巴马政府的官员所炮制出来的保尔森计划的翻版。每一次,他们都给这个计划加一些点缀,而且声称都是新鲜玩意儿。看上去他们已经沉迷于此无法自拔了。
Float 这里有特殊的意义, 见吴莹词典p492, “提出、提议“。
“照我的计算,这已经是第三次,由奥巴马政府的官员所炮制出来的保尔森计划的翻版。”这一句, 语法有点乱。删繁就简后成了“这已经是第三次,翻版” 需要一个主要动词才能成句。
重译:掐指数来,奥巴马政府的官员,已经是第三次出笼这种本质上乃是保尔森计划换汤不换药的翻版了。每一次出笼,他们都给这个计划加一些点缀,然后就声称这是个完全不同的新玩意儿。看来,他们已经开始沉迷于此,无法自拔了。
 
12).But the real problem with this plan is that it won’t work. Yes, troubled assets may be somewhat undervalued. But the fact is that financial executives literally bet their banks on the belief that there was no housing bubble, and the related belief that unprecedented levels of household debt were no problem. They lost that bet. And no amount of financial hocus-pocus — for that is what the Geithner plan amounts to — will change that fact.
原译:但这些计划最要命的地方是,它们根本就不管用。的确,毒资产的价值可能在某种程度上被低估。但事实却是金融高管们简单地下了赌注,认为房地产泡沫并不存在,史无前例的房产债务也不构成问题。可是,他们赌输了。哪怕有再多的花言巧语(即使有盖氏计划那么多)也无法改变这一事实。
Literally : 真的,不夸张地。不是:简单地。 今天回顾起来, 当时金融高管们是真的把他们的银行资产拿来赌一把, 赌的是什么? 赌的是一种信念(belief),亦即:现实经济中房地产泡沫并不存在, 还有另一种相关的信念(related belief),亦即:前所未有的巨量房产债务不是个问题。这句重译:但事实却是,金融高管们把他们的银行资产真的拿来赌了一把,赌的是房地产泡沫纯属子虚乌有的信念,赌的是房产债务虽巨量空前但平安无事这个相关的信念。
 
13)And no amount of financial hocus-pocus — for that is what the Geithner plan amounts to — will change that fact. 主要的干句是“哪怕有再多的花言巧语也无法改变这一事实。”但是其中的插入语却译错了。 For that is what the Geithner plan amounts to. = because what the Geithner plan amounts to is financial hocus pocus. 先看amount to=等于,就是。(吴莹词典p42)。再看主语从句what the Geithner plan amounts to与盖氏计划相等的东西,盖氏计划其本身。 所以应这样译:哪怕有再多的花言巧语——盖氏计划正是这样的花言巧语——也无法改变这一事实。
 
14)Things get even worse if businesses and consumers expect wages to fall further in the future. John Maynard Keynes put it clearly, more than 70 years ago: “The effect of an expectation that wages are going to sag by, say, 2 percent in the coming year will be roughly equivalent to the effect of a rise of 2 percent in the amount of interest payable for the same period.” And a rise in the effective interest rate is the last thing this economy needs.
 
原译: 如果企业和消费者预期工资水平在未来将进一步下降,那么形势将变得更糟。早在70多年前凯恩斯就曾详细阐述过这个问题:“如果预期来年的工资水平将下跌两个百分点,那么这种预期所引致的效果,大致等同于同期应付利息的金额上升两个百分点带来的后果。”最终,实体经济需要的将是实际利率的上调。
And a rise in the effective interest rate is the last thing this economy needs. 这里的the last thing 意义非同寻常。弄错了,则全反了。 经济学常识是,为了复苏,一定要降息。既如此, 何以此处“实体经济需要的将是实际利率的上调。”?
逻辑不通啊!查“the last thing sb wants(needs)” 是某人最不喜之物,最不需之物”
重译: 当前经济最忌讳的就是有效利率的攀升。
 
15)There has been a lot of talk lately about green shoots and all that, and there are indeed indications that the economic plunge that began last fall may be leveling off. The National Bureau of Economic Research might even declare the recession over later this year.
原译: 关于复苏的“萌芽”和类似的论断近来我们已经听了很多。目前的确有迹象表明,始于去年秋天的经济危机可能渐渐趋于平缓。国家经济研究局(NBER)甚至断言衰退将于年底前结束。
“Might even declare…”是:“或许甚至还会宣布。。。”不是:“甚至断言。。。”。 前者是推测, 后者是事实陈述。
 
16)First of all, Ms. Romer’s point — that a premature return to orthodoxy can be deadly in this kind of crisis — is one I might have made myself. In fact, I just did.
原译:首先,罗默女士的观点 – 在这种危机中过早的回归常轨可能是致命的 – 是我自己可能也会秉持的.事实上, 也正是如此.
In fact, I just did 中的did 代替什么?从上下文看,did 代替 one I might have made myself 中的made. 那么, one 指什么呢?指的是Ms. Romer’s point. 英文中的代词以及do(did)可以让各种指代关系一目了然。 可是中文缺乏这种结构, 应靠译者补明。 另外, 这个made是瞬时性动作, 不是持续性动作, 所以不好译成秉持。
重译:首先, 罗默女士的观点 – 在如此危机中过早回归常轨有可能为害更大 – 是一个连我自己当时都也可能这样阐明的观点。事实上, 我刚刚正这么做来着。(事实上, 前此不久, 对这个观点,我就这么阐明过。)
 
17)As someone who has written somewhat critically of the short-sightedness of policymakers in the late 1930s, I feel new humility.
原译:像某个对1930年代末的政策制定者的短视写过一些多少有点持批评态度的文字的人一样(或:像某人 – 此人对1930年代末的政策制定者的短视写过一些多少有点持批评态度的文字 - 一样), 我感觉到一种前所未有的谦卑.
As someone中的as 是介词“作为”, 还是连词“有如,好像”?译者显然确信是后者, 甚至不吝加括弧又重述一遍。 我要指出, 是前者。
重译:作为一个对1930年代末政策制定者的短视不乏讥评的人, 我感觉到一种前所未有的谦卑。
那么, 何时as 用作连词呢? 见下句:
As does someone else who has (最好写成:As do those who have) written somewhat critically of the short-sightedness of policymakers in the late 1930s, I feel new humility.
因为要“象”, 所以someone后的else不能省。 不能自己“象”自己, 这是逻辑问题。 最好用复数的those,这样“象”的目标更多,也更可能。 如果是上面这一句, 那么可以这样译:
就像那些对1930年代末政策制定者的短视不乏讥评的人那样, 我也感觉到一种前所未有的谦卑
 
18)What I wonder is: if you had polled Americans in 1936-37 about economic policy, what would they have said? I’m pretty sure they would have been very against deficits — yet FDR’s attempt to reduce the deficit was both economically and politically disastrous.
原译:我想知道的是:如果在1936到37年间就经济政策对美国人做民意调查,他们会怎样说?我可以相当负责任的说他们会非常反对赤字 – 同样,罗斯福总统减少赤字的努力将是经济和政治上的双重灾难。
注意第一句用虚拟语气, 所以事实上, 没有做过民意调查。 设若当时做过, 我相当确信,美国百姓原是会反对赤字政策的。 但是, 但是, 始料不及的是(yet) 罗斯福的减赤努力竟然带来祸不单行。
重译:我想知道的是:设若在1936到37年间就经济政策对美国人做过民意调查,他们那时原本会怎样说的? 我相当确信他们会非常反对赤字的—— 但是, 罗斯福总统减少赤字的努力却带来了经济和政治上的双重灾难。
 
19)So the moral for Obama is, of course, to ignore this poll, for the sake both of the economy and of Congressional Democrats — Blue Dogs included.
 原译: 因此,奥巴马的觉悟在于,毫无疑问的,不理这个民意调查,为了经济和国会的民主党人 – 包括蓝狗联盟.
Moral 不是觉悟, 而是一个故事的寓意、教训。 以上这一段三十年代的故事对奥巴马的教训是不要理睬民意测验的结果。
 
 
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